May 20

Ibrahim Lodi – The last ruler of Delhi Sultanate

Ibrahim Lodi

The fall of Delhi Sultanate

Ibrahim Lodi

With the entire approval of the Afghan nobility, Sikandar Shah's oldest son, Ibrahim, was installed as king on November 21, 1517, and assumed the name Ibrahim Shah. He was the final king of the Lodi dynasty and ruled for nine years until Babur's armies conquered and murdered him at the Battle of Panipat in 1526, ushering in the Mughal Empire's rise in India.

He had to deal with several uprisings. When Ibrahim Khan Lodi replaced older and experienced commanders with more junior ones who were devoted to him, this infuriated the nobles as well. Babur was finally invited to attack India by his Afghan aristocracy.

Jalal Khan’s Revolt:

A small number of nobility supported the division of the kingdom to further their own self-serving goals. They brought Ibrahim's younger brother Jalal Khan to Jaunpur and installed him as king. Khan Jahan Lohani, the governor of Rapri, denounced this self-destructive strategy of partitioning the realm. As a result, the Afghan nobility realized their error and dispatched Haibat Khan, also known as "the wolf-slayer," to convince Jalal Khan to leave Jaunpur. Jalal Khan, however, steadfastly resisted leaving Jaunpur. Ibrahim presented a Firman in which he warned the Amirs not to follow Jalal and instructed them to do so instead. Jalal Khan strengthened his authority by allying with Zamindars. Azam Humayun, who quarreled with Ibrahim, joined him. Ibrahim imprisoned all of his siblings in the Hansi Fort and personally attacked Jalal Khan. The fort was destroyed while Kalpi was under siege. As Jalal Khan fled in the direction of Agra, the Governor began to negotiate with him. When Ibrahim learned about such talks, he disagreed with them and gave the go-ahead to kill Jalal Khan. With the king of Gwalior, the latter sought safety. He retreated to Malwa when the Gwalior fort was taken. The Gondwanan Zamindars captured him and gave him to Ibrahim. He was executed on the road by the king's orders while being transported to Hansi.

Action against Azam Humayun

Based on mere suspicion, Ibrahim Shah summoned Azam Humayun of Gwalior and imprisoned him together with his son Fateh Khan. The governorship of Kara-Manikpur was taken away from Islam Khan, another child of Azam Humayun. There was a great deal of anger because of what was done to Azam Humayun. The rebels amassed a sizable force that included 40.000 cavalry. A sizable infantry as well as 500 elephants. Shaikh Raja Bokhari, a holy man, tried unsuccessfully to mediate a settlement between the parties. Ibrahim rebuffed the insurgents' demand that Azam Humayun be freed. After unsuccessful negotiations, there was fierce fighting and a lot of carnage. Islam Khan was ultimately fatally wounded on the battlefield. Khan Said was apprehended. The losses to the insurgents were catastrophic.

War with Rana Sangha:

A conflict between Rana Sanga of Mewar and Ibrahim is mentioned. According to reports, Ibrahim gathered a sizable army for the invasion of Mewar and placed it under the command of highly skilled generals. Mian Husain first sided with Rana Sanga but subsequently betrayed him at a vital juncture. The Rajputs were attacked by the Afghans, who massacred many of them. Rana Sanga managed to flee, but his supporters were killed. It should be emphasized that no other authority mentions this voyage, except for Tarikh-Salatin-Afghana, Waqiat-i-Mushtaqi, and Tarkhi-Daudi. Ferishta and Nizam-ud-Din Badaoni remain mute on the subject. In the Rajput histories, this conflict is not mentioned.

The historian Tod claims that Sanga organized his armies with which he constantly maintained the field and when asked to deal with Timur's descendants, he fought 18 wars against the rulers of Delhi and Malwa. At Bakrol and Ghatoli, where the last fight took place, the imperial armies were crushed with tremendous death, leaving a prisoner of the blood royal to adorn that triumph of Chittor, he faced off against Ibrahim Lodi in person in two of them. It appears that Ahmad Yadgar was mistaken when he claimed that Ibrahim had defeated Rana Sanga.

Condition of Nobles:

Ibrahim tried all in his power to bring his nobility down to elevate himself at their expense. Among his father's most important lords, Mian Bhua was put in prison by him. His main transgression was his disregard for formalities and his willingness to act in his master's best interests without always bothering to seek official approval. Despite being treated kindly in other ways, the elderly man's death in jail weakened his son's loyalty. In jail, Azam Humayun was murdered. While being transported to the Hansi fort for incarceration, Jalal Khan was executed on the king's orders. Even the most powerful nobility worried for their safety. It makes sense, Darya Khan. Khan-i-Jahan Husain Khan Farmuli was assassinated in his bed by several Chanderi holy men after Husain Khan Farmuli and Lodi revolted against the Sultan. The eldest child of Darya Khan, Bahadur Khan, rebelled against Ibrahim's rule by assuming the name Muhammad Shah.

Betrayal of Daulat Khan:

Dilawar Khan, the son of Punjab Governor Daulat Khan Lodi, was abused by Ibrahim. When Ibrahim called Daulat Khan Lodi to the capital, the latter excused himself on the basis that he would arrive later with the State's treasury and immediately dispatched his son Dilawar Khan. Ibrahim took Dilawar Khan to the jail in Delhi where the targets of the rage were hung from the walls. "Have you seen the condition of those who have disobeyed me?" Ibrahim asked Dilawar Khan. It is said that Dilawar Khan submitted to Ibrahim, but he managed to get away and tell his father what he had seen and done in the city. It was under these situations that Daulat Khan Lodi sent a request to Babur to invade India.

It appears that Daulat Khan's true goal was to utilize Babur as a pawn to establish his dominance over the Punjab. The Punjab was to remain with Daulat Khan, while Alam Khan was to be given the throne of Delhi. According to reports, Babur attacked Punjab in 1524 and took Lahore with ease. Dualat Khan was awarded the lands of Jullundur and Sultanpur by Babar, but because of his bad behavior, Daulat Khan had them taken away and handed to his eldest son Dilawar Khan. After making preparations for the governance of the Punjab, Babar returned to Kabul. As soon as Babur left, Dualat Khan removed his son's fief from Sultanpur and expelled Alam Khan from Dipalpur. Alam Khan headed to Babar in Kabul and protested. In these conditions, Babar left Kabul for the second time and engaged in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. Ibrahim perished on the field of battle, and Babar emerged victorious. The Lodi dynasty was overthrown at the Battle of Panipat, ushering in the Mughal era.

First Battle of Panipat:

In the Battle of Panipat in 1526, Babur, the Mughal monarch of Kabulistan (Kabul, modern-day Afghanistan), outnumbered and outgunned Ibrahim's considerably bigger army. He died during the conflict. Babur's army was said to consist of between 20 and 24 cannons and between 12,000 and 25,000 soldiers. Between 50,000 and 120,000 troops as well as 400 and 1,000 war elephants were under the command of Ibrahim Khan Lodi. Over 20,000 people died in the subsequent conflict, in addition to several others being injured or taken prisoner, degrading the Lodi troops. The Lodi dynasty ended, and the subsequent 331-year Mughal period began.

The Reign of Ibrahim Lodi:

In several ways, Ibrahim Khan resembled his father and grandparents. He had intelligence, bravery. He was known for being orthodox and devout. He shared his father's love of music. He was a generous and compassionate guy, but as a king, he had numerous flaws that were made worse by the challenging situation he found himself in. He required more implicit loyalty than was typical among Afghans and had a considerable amount of pride. He was hasty in punishing everyone he suspected of betrayal or disloyalty. Because he was neither forgiving nor forgetful in his political dealings, he frequently came out as vengeful. He generally treated the nobles in a tactless and inappropriate manner. He could create enemies, but despite his generosity, he was unable to win over men of dubious loyalties. He placed an excessive amount of value on discipline, obedience, and humility in his subordinates yet had no idea how to maintain them. His policies were designed to incite discontent and uprising. He seldom entered the field himself and lacked the attributes of a commander. Despite this, he displayed traits other than bravery and tenacity. Over municipal officials and provincial governors, he failed to uphold his power. He did well at first, but then he failed. By 1526, he had been besieged by foes on all sides as a result of his sins of action and omission. As a result, discontentment grew. He was no match for Babur and no wonder he lost the game.


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