May 8

Bahlul Lodi – Founder of the Lodi Dynasty

Bahlul Lodi

Bahlul Lodi – The great ruler and warrior

Bahlul Lodi

The Lodi Dynasty, which ruled from 1451 until 1526, was started by Bahlul Lodi. He belonged to the Lodi Clan's Sahu Khail division. During the Firuz Tughluq era, Malik Bahram, Bahlul's grandfather, moved to Multan and began working for Multan's governor, Mailk Mardan Daulat. Only two of Malik Bahram's five sons—Malik Sultan Shah and Malik Kala—became well-known. The son of Malik Kala, who had vanquished Jasrath Khokhar and established himself as an independent leader, was Bahlul. His uncle Sultan Shah was named the governor of Sarhind in 1419 and granted the title of Islam Khan by Khizr Khan.

Despite having his own sons, Islam Khan selected Bahlul as his heir based on competence, according to Ferishta, who also claims that Islam Khan married his daughter to Bahlul.

His Rise to Power:

Islam Khan passed away, and Bahlul took over as governor of Sarhind. Lahore might be included in Bahlul's domain. Due to the size of his army and his influence inside the Sayyid Empire, Bahlul rose to the position of Governor of great importance. When Mahmud Shah Khalji of Malwa threatened to invade, Muhammad Shah turned to him for assistance. Through cunning, he was able to portray himself as having defeated the army of Malwa.

He was given the name Khan Khanan by Muhammad Shah, who was so ecstatic about him that he addressed him as his son. As Alam Shah retreated to Badaon in 1448 while there was unrest in Delhi, Bahlul had his chance. Hamid Khan invited Bahlul, who additionally provided him with the city's keys. Bahlul also got Alam Shah's approval. Bahlul became the king as a result on April 19, 1451, and he remained in that position until his demise in 1489.

The issue with Hamid Khan:

Hamid Khan certainly played a key role in putting Bahlul Lodi in the position to rule Delhi. It makes sense that Bahlul sought Hamid Khan to ascend to the throne while also declaring his desire to remain as the army's commander and obey his instructions. He was treated with great regard by Bahlul. However, Bahlul later decided to get rid of Hamid Khan and devised a strategy to do so. He instructed his Afghan followers to act like peasants in front of Hamid Khan and "to adopt a conduct the most remote from good sense and common reason, to induce him to believe that they were thoughtless fellows and, of course, banish all apprehension and fear of them from his heart." The Afghan Bahlul devotees carried out the instructions. Under the guise that all troops and tribesmen were on an equal footing, the men with weapons crammed into the audience hall. Hamid Khan was persuaded by their behavior that he was dealing with simpletons. There were enough Afghan soldiers present to put an end to any unrest that may have developed in the city. They were numerous enough in the courtroom for Bahiol to commit any act of aggression. A dispute broke out between Bahlul's supporters and the gatekeeper when he went to meet Hamid Khan one day and asked him to let them in. Hamid Khan was unaware of any betrayal and granted their quest. He was shocked, though, when Qutb Khan, Bahlul's cousin, and brother-in-law, presented Hamid Khan with chains that he had hidden in his pocket and informed him that it was thought necessary for state reasons that he should be restricted for a few days, but that his life was to be spared in appreciation for his assistance. Hamid Khan afterward vanished entirely from the scene.

Bahlul attempted to gain the army's trust by dispersing gifts and rewards to solidify his position. The Amirs were persuaded by holding up the prospect of advancement and glory in line with their ranks.

The revolts of Jaunpur:

Although Mahmud Shah Sharqi, the ruler of Jaunpur, installed Bahlul on the throne, he attempted to remove him. Khwaja Bayazid, the elder son of Bahlul who was recently put in command of Delhi, was under siege by Mahmud Shah as he proceeded to Delhi. Bahlul hurried towards Delhi, and when Muhmad Shah was able to penetrate its walls, he was just 30 miles away from the city. After Darya Khan Lodi, who was assisting Mahmud Shah of Jaunpur, was convinced to quit him, the rest of Jaunpur's army became disheartened and left. Thus, Mahmud Shah of Jaunpur's effort to remove Bahlul Lodi from the throne was unsuccessful.

Both adversaries and allies were profoundly affected by the fall of Mahmud Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur. Bahlul's position was enhanced. Citizens and his adversaries were silenced. Fear forced many chiefs and fief lords to submit. Bahlul advanced towards Mewat and forced Ahmad Khan, who lost seven Parganas, into surrender. Despite committing treason, Darya Khan Lodi, the governor of Sambhal, received mild treatment and only had to offer up to seven Parganas. Isa Khan was permitted to keep every item he had. The governor of Suket, Mubarak Khan, received a similar treatment. Quth Khan of Rewari eventually gave in as well. The leaders of Etawah, Chandwar, and other Doab districts recognized Bahlul's authority. To force Hussain Shah Langah, who had overthrown his father as ruler of that little country, to submit in 1472, Bahlul advanced towards Multan.

The majority of Bahlul's time was spent battling Jaunpur, and he eventually succeeded in eliminating its autonomy and acquiring it. As has already been mentioned, Mahmud Shah tried to assassinate Bahlul right at the start of his rule, but he was unsuccessful. Mahmud Shah Sharqi made another effort to approach Delhi at the behest of his queen, who was the daughter of Alam Shah of Badaon, and with that goal in mind marched towards Etawah. However, a pact was forged, and the parties agreed that both kings would continue to control the regions that belonged to their forebears. Bahlul Lodi needed to return the elephants that he had taken during the last conflict. Following the provisions of the pact, Bahlul attempted to seize Shamsabad, which the king of Jaunpur had granted to Juna Khan. Mahmud Shah had promised to discharge Juna Shah from his service. The Jaunpuri army opposed Bahlul, and Quth Khan Lodi was taken prisoner. However, Mahmud Shah passed away in 1497, and his eldest son Bhikan succeeded him as ruler as Muhammad Shah.

The lifter recognized Bahlul's right to keep Shamshabad and made peace with him. Husain Khan became the ruler of Jaunpur as a consequence of a revolt that occurred there. The newly appointed ruler was a magnificent man who battled Bahlul with tremendous tenacity throughout his whole life. Husain Shah and Bahlul reached a four-year peace agreement, although it was only a ceasefire. Hussain Shah of Jaunpur invaded Delhi in 1478 on the orders of his wife Jalila. The threat disturbed Bahlul so greatly that he asked Mahmud Khalji II of Malwa for assistance. Before Malwa could respond, Hussain Shah arrived at the shores of the Jamuna. Bahlul had intentions to make the invader some alluring offers, but they were arrogantly turned down. As a result, Bahlul left the city to engage the enemy in battle. Hussain Shah's camp had been left undefended, and Bahlul attacked it after fording the river. Hussain Shah decided to go as the Afghans started stealing from his tents in real life. Bahlul even managed to capture the women in his harem, including Jalila, but he kindly transferred them to Jaunpur without letting any harm come to them.

Three more years of a ceasefire were planned. Hussain Shah then conquered Etawah and led an army of 1 lac horses and 100 elephants toward Delhi. Bahlul once more offered Hussain Shah several modest proposals for a settlement, but those were ignored. Despite this, Bahlul was still able to beat the armed forces of Jaunpur. Hussain Shah nonetheless marched against Bahlul, and the two forces eventually met around 25 miles outside of Delhi. Despite suffering a second setback, Husain Shah managed to get a fair settlement.


In March 1479, Husain Shah made a second effort and landed in the waters of the Jamuna. Of all his campaigns, this one was the most promising. However, he persuaded Bahlul to formally acknowledge his rule over all provinces east of the Ganges in exchange for peace. After signing the agreement, Husain Shah set out on a leisurely retreat, but Bahlul ambushed him and managed to capture an enormous amount of elephants and horses that were hauled up with loot and wealth. With this victory, Bahlul's fortunes began to change, and he followed Jaunpur's demoralized army and seized the parganas of Kampil, Patiali, Shamsabad, Suket, Koll Marhara, and Jalesar. Husain Shah attempted to confront Bahlul but failed. He was compelled to consent to Bahlul keeping the majority of the land that he had reclaimed. Bahlul moved to Delhi when Husain Shah retired, but Husain Shah returned to the battlefield to reclaim his lost land. At Senha, though, Bahlul killed him. He has said that this was the heaviest defeat he has ever felt. Delhi's dominance was demonstrated by the loot that ended up in Bahlul's hands and the prestige that came with his triumph.

At Rapri, Bahlul grabbed the initiative and overcame Husain Shah. Bahlul marched to assault Husain Shah at Raigaon Khaga after taking Etawah, but Husain Shah had turned to meet him. Husain Shah had to flee, and when Bahlul advanced on Jaunpur, Husain Shah withdrew in the direction of Kanauj. He was pursued by Bahlul, who caught up with him on the shores of the Rahab. He was assaulted, vanquished, and had one of his spouse's taken prisoner. When Bahlul returned to Jaunpur, he took control of the city and appointed Mubarak Khan Lohani as its head of state.

Bahlul also traveled to Badaon, which had been formally ruled by Husain Shah since Alam Shah died in 1478. Husain Shah invaded Jaunpur by taking advantage of Bahlul's absence. Mubarak Khan was compelled to leave. By beginning discussions, the Bahlul commanders were able to buy some time. Meanwhile, Bahlul returned from Badaon and retook control of Jaunpur. The warriors of Bahlul chased Husain Shah as he fled to Bihar. Barbak, Bablol's eldest surviving son, was installed as king of Jaunpur in 1486.

Administration of Bahlul Lodi:

The greatness and splendor of the Lodi dynasty were due in large part to Bablol, who also served as the dynasty's founder. He was able to subdue the many chiefs who may rebel against the central authority. He was successful in putting the empire's reputation on a solid foundation. His greatest accomplishment was arming Jaunpur, which had long resisted him.

Bahlul was compelled to spend most of his time waging battles, leaving little time for civil administration. Bahlul was courageous, kind, kind, and truthful. He did not think that any sort of demonstration was necessary because the public already knew that he was the monarch and did not need more proof of this. No beggar was ever permitted to leave disappointed by him since he was exceedingly compassionate to the impoverished. He cherished justice and personally heard the grievances of the populace. He divided what he had with his soldiers. He didn't act arrogant toward Afghans who were his countrymen.

Bahlul had a kind disposition. He was honorable, kind, modest, and unassuming. He gained popularity among the populace through several actions. When he plundered the royal riches of Delhi, he divided the loot among the warriors and kept only a proportional piece for himself. He didn't have any private security. That demonstrates his self-assurance and populist appeal. The nobility gave him meals on a rotating basis rather than having them made in his palace. In the presence of the nobility, he avoided sitting on the throne and ordered them to stand. Bahlul used to refer to everyone as Masnad-i-Ali while they sat together on carpets.


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