May 6

Lodi Dynasty and end of Delhi Sultanate

Lodi Dynasty

The last Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate

Lodi Dynasty

The Lodi Dynasty was the Fifth and the last dynasty to rule over the Delhi Sultanate. It lasted almost 75 years from 1451 to 1536. The founder of this dynasty was Bahlul Lodi who established it after replacing the Sayyid Dynasty from the Delhi Sultanate. Bahlol Lodi had a prudent choice before invading Delhi and capitalized on the Sayyed ruler's weak position by further seizing Punjab. In 1451, he assumed control of India from Delhi and adopted the name "Bahlol Shah Ghazi." The Sharqi Empire was deposed by him.

On July 15, 1489, Sikander Lodhi inherited Bahlol Lodhi, whose elder sister Barbak Shah was engaged in a power battle with him. Sikandar Lodhi, a fanatical Sunni king, destroyed Indian temples at Mathura and Naga Port. Hindus were made to undergo Jizya to demonstrate Islam's supremacy. Five attempts by Sikandar Lodi to seize possession of the Gwalior fort were thwarted by Raja Man Singh. After a succession dispute with his elder brother Jalal-ud-Din, Ibrahim Khan Lodi took over. In 1517, he went dead.

The Rulers of the Lodi Dynasty:


a.      Bahlul Lodi:

Muhammad Shah of the Sayyid dynasty appointed Bahlul Khan Lodi (1451–1489) as the administrator of Sirhind. He was elevated to the rank of Tarun-Bin-Sultan by Muhammad Shah. He was a dynamic leader and one of the most prominent chiefs of the Punjab.

On April 19, 1451, Bahlul Khan Lodi became the ruler of Delhi. The seizure of the Jaunpur Sultanate was the most significant occasion of his rule. The Sharqi dynasty that ruled the Jaunpur Sultanate was the main target of Bahlul's battles, which he finally conquered. In 1486, he installed his eldest living son, Barbak, on the throne of Jaunpur.

b.     Sikandar Lodi:

Bahlul's second child Sikandar Khan Lodi succeeded him and took the name Sikandar Shah following Bahlul's death on July 17, 1489. He was designated Sultan on July 15, 1489, when his father chose him to be the next ruler. He founded Agra and built temples around 1504.


He relocated the capital from Delhi to Agra. He supported commerce and business. His pen name was Gulruk, and he was a renowned poet. Additionally, he supported education and had Sanskrit medical works translated into Persian. He curbed the individuality of his Pashtun nobility by making them disclose their accounting books for official review. As a result, he was able to establish motivation and order in the administration. His most notable success was the invasion and annexation of Bihar.

Sikandar had a desire to demolish temples. He also prohibited Muslim women from visiting the tombs of Muslim saints and prohibited the annual procession of the spear used by the illustrious Muslim martyr Masud Salar. A Brahman who had maintained that his religion was equally accurate to Islam was executed by Sikandar.

c.      Ibrahim Lodi:

The last Lodi Sultan was Ibrahim Lodi, Sikandar's eldest son, who ruled Delhi from 1517 to 1526. Although he had the potential to be a great ruler, his decisions and actions were rash and undiplomatic. His effort at establishing royal absolutism came at the wrong time, and his oppressive approach was bound to fail in the absence of measures to strengthen the administration and increase military power.

Ibrahim suppressed the opposition for over 10 years while dealing with many uprisings. He attempted to save the Lodi Dynasty from extinction and spent most of his rule at war with the two groups of Afghans and the Mughal Empire. Ibrahim was defeated at the 1526 Battle of Panipat. This marked the demise of the Lodi Dynasty and the rise of the Mughals.

Developments during Lodi Dynasty:

Another achievement credited to Sultan Sikandar Lodi is the establishment of a trustworthy managerial structure. He put in place audits to look at the muqtas' and walis' money. Mubarak Khan Lodi, the governor of Jaunpur, was the first aristocracy to have their accounting books scrutinized in 1506. After being determined guilty of theft, he was fired.

To keep current on the state of the Empire, the Sultan modified the monitoring system. The nobility avoided discussing political issues among themselves out of fear of offending the Sultan. Out of concern for the well-being of the people, the Sultan built charity houses for the poor and the disabled in both the city and the provinces. These philanthropic organizations provided financial help to worthy people.

Academic institutions received financing from intellectuals and poets throughout the Empire. He forbade the use of any dialect other than Persian in official buildings. As a result, many Hindus began learning Persian and rapidly became fluent speakers. As a result, they began to manage and supervise the revenue administration. When Babur initially arrived in India, he was surprised to see that the whole tax department was made up of Hindus. Sultan Sikandar Lodi placed a high value on ensuring that everyone received fair justice. His efforts brought about peace and prosperity for the Empire. Muslim Lodi's subjects were required to pay the zakat tax, while non-Muslim subjects were required to pay the jizya tax in exchange for governmental protection.

The economy during the Lodi Dynasty:

Sikandar Lodhi, who was renowned for his zeal, demolished Indian temples at Mathura and Naga Port. He imposed Jizya on Hindus to demonstrate the superiority of Islam. He developed the 32-digit Gaz-i-Sikandari to assist farmers in measuring their farmed areas. In 1504, he founded the city of Agra and embellished it with magnificent monuments and buildings.

He promoted imports and exports, which contributed to the industry's growth. Farmers are exempt from paying taxes on food grains. Favoring education Sikandar was a zealous Sunni leader who had little regard for other faiths.

The Decline of the Lodi Dynasty:

The decline of the Lodi Dynasty was the decline of the Delhi Sultanate which had been running for a very long period. By the time Ibrahim Lodi came to the throne, the governmental structure of the Lodi Dynasty had already fallen apart as a result of restricted trade routes and a depleted treasury. By the late fourteenth century, the Deccan, a coastal trade route, had collapsed. Supply lines from the coastline to the interior, where the Lodi Empire was based, were cut off as a result of the deterioration and eventual collapse of this specific trade route.

The Lodi Dynasty avoided utilizing those highways, which resulted in a fall in commerce and treasury and left them more vulnerable to internal political problems because they were unable to defend their territories if violence erupted on trade routes. Daulat Khan Lodi, the governor of Lahore, requested that Babur, the king of Kabul, launch an assault on his kingdom in revenge.

The accession of Mughals:

Instead of installing Alam Khan, Ibrahim's uncle, on the throne upon his death, Babur declared himself the ruler of Ibrahim's domain. Ibrahim's demise brought the Lodi dynasty to an end and paved the way for the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India. The remaining Lodi lands were incorporated into the newly established Mughal Empire. Babur carried out further military operations.

Ibrahim Lodi's brother, Mahmud Lodi, proclaimed himself Sultan and continued to oppose Mughal soldiers. In the Battle of Khanwa in 1527, he gave Rana Sanga around 4,000 Afghan men. Mahmud Lodi withdrew to the east after the loss and confronted Babur once again at the Battle of Ghaghra in 1529.


Ocean Media
© 2024 Ocean Media. All Rights Reserved.